A transformer is a static machine employed for transforming power from one circuit to a different one without changing frequency. This is a simple concept of transformer. While there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is a static device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works about the principle of mutual induction.
If we would like to understand the reputation of transformer we certainly have return long from the 1880s. Around fifty years before that in 1830 property of induction the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved leading to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the big capacity of transformer manufacturers in the range of several KVA, MVA came into existence. During 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and in many cases higher KV class transformers were manufactured in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is quite much economical. Theoretically, this low voltage level power may be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted leads to greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut when the voltage level of a power is increased, the present of your power is reduced which then causes reduction in ohmic or I2R losses in the system, reduction in cross sectional portion of the conductor i.e. decline in capital price of the program and in addition it raises the voltage regulating the system. As a result of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is accomplished by boost transformer on the sending side from the power system network. As this high voltage power will not be distributed to the consumers directly, this has to be stepped to the specified level on the receiving end with the aid of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a vital role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are often used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is in excess of 2. It is actually cost-effective to make use of auto transformer where ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is less than 2. Again just one unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost-effective than the usual bank of three 500kv power transformer inside a three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is tough to transport and need to be removed from service entirely if one of several phase winding reduces.
Forms of Transformer
Transformers may be categorized in different ways, depending on their purpose, use, construction etc. The types of transformer are the following,
Boost Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally used for stepping down and up the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is normally employed in three phase power system as it is cost-effective than later. However when size matters, it is preferable to use a bank of three single phase transformer as it is simpler to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are often used in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps down the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It has good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs a day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are employed to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is generally used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It is affordable to make use of later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is below 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are designed for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers intended for installing at indoor are furnace transformer.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer they have two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in good shape by using a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It has a central limb and two outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are positioned around the central limb. Double magnetic circuit exists.
Berry type transformer: The core looks like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this particular transformer with transformer oil filled inside.